University - Their birth

University - Their birth


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Currents of thought and the birth of universities


Etruscan Minerva


Greek Minerva

The Late Middle Ages left us an indestructible legacy: the foundation of universities, which is nothing more than a happy symbiosis of all the cultures that had characterized the early Middle Ages.

These cultures (Christian and Arab), even if they had a dogmatic orientation, allowed the rise of another current that gave birth to scientific thought.

The word university, which in the sec. XII and XIII did not have the modern meaning of a school in which all branches of knowledge are represented, but rather that of a corporation of teachers and students, acquired a meaning closer to the current one with the University of Law and the University of Arts and Medicine.

The term to indicate academic institutions in the abstract was then Studium. Only later did the word Universitas appear, which was used for the first time in Perugia in 1316 with the expression "Universitas Studii".

At this point we must consider that the one that held the university monopoly was only the class of Jurists who had the nickname "Utriusque Iuris", who did not look favorably on the entry of Medicine into the university world.

Only jurists could boast the title of Doctores and therefore they were, only they, worthy of teaching.

To raise Medicine to a branch of studies at the level of Jurisprudence it was necessary to have a written text, as jurists had the Justinian Code

For this reason it was necessary to identify a sacred text that would allow to validate every observation and affirmation, this text was identified in the works of Galen, which were discussed with the dialectical-deductive method.

In this way, medicine also created its dogmas, a natural consequence of the infallibility of the texts, and adapted to legal teaching.


Emperor Justinian

The one who assumed this task seems to have been Taddeo degli Alderotti, a teacher at the University of Bologna, who made sure that the faculty of the Jurists accepted that of the Medici artists, who, adapting to their teaching method, had shown that even the medical art could be equated in dignity with law.

Of course, however, this acceptance of the dogmatic legal method considerably slowed down the development of scientific thinking based instead on objectivity.

This happened above all because the universities had to serve the culture of the time which found strength and security in dogma.

In this period, Christian culture, making itself strong with St. Thomas and the connection to Aristotelian doctrine, created schools that do not give space to any form of clinical and experimental research.

In any case, figures appear in this period, such as Mondino di Liuzzi, Public Lector in the Bolognese Studio from 1314 to 1324, who used to come down from the chair to refute directly on the corpse what the texts of the time of Galen and more recent periods had asserted, such as "Anatomy on pigs" by Cofone the Younger (1085-1100), thus giving life to a method that was beginning to have something scientific.

It is also the period of the diffusion in Arabic of the ancient Greek and Latin works which are later brought back to the original language, but in this last passage they suffer cuts and errors of content, just remember the translation work. of Constantine the African, who worked in Montecassino.


Oxford University

University medical faculties began to arise in Italy where for some time there had been schools free from any authority and imposed dogmatism.

The only adverse case was that of Salerno where the Salerno School for centuries had been a beacon of culture in the practical medical field and which, however, had gradually lost this important position due to dogmatism.

It should be emphasized that unfortunately this germ survived for a long time even after the arrival of scientific thought since the influence of Galen was so deeply permeated in the spirit and mental habit of those scholars, that it was almost impossible to detach from it and, even today, we sometimes witness to episodes dictated by pure dogmatism, but not deriving from medieval culture.

Riesman wrote in this regard: "The teaching of Medicine as a systematic and organizational enterprise had its beginning in Salerno. This school, however, did not flourish to the point of becoming a true University in the modern sense of the word, but it was necessary to wait until 1242. when Frederick II founded the University and regulated its statutes.


Cambridge University

The great distinction was made for the first time in Bologna, then in Paris, Montpellier, Oxford, Cambridge and other medieval centers of culture that still survives.

The political and social events of the time and the legal systems influenced the birth and evolution of the university in Italy in the thirteenth century.

The first medical university to be opened was the one granted by Pope Honorius III in 1219 in Bologna, here it was badly tolerated by the jurists who had physically relegated it to parts of the city, far from their schools and the students lived in hospices.

It even happened in Paris, as Martinotti writes in his "Study on the teaching of anatomy in Bologna", that anatomy lessons were held in brothels, and this is confirmed by the chroniclers of the time.

In 1222 in Bologna the contrasts between jurists and doctors arose as the latter began to get talked about and consequently were exiled even more than before, so much so that we are witnessing an exodus of professors and students from Bologna to Padua, where the group found wide reception.


La Sorbonne University

The University of Padua had just been founded and already in 1223 it welcomed Albert the Great, who found great interest in the sciences and his work can be considered as the principle of the experimental school.

According to some historians, the University of Vercelli was also built between 1220 and 1228, which had been established with a pact between the podestà of Vercelli and the rectors of the various nations, at the closure of this University it was succeeded by that of Turin from 1406 to 1411 .

The University of Siena originated in 1241, while the Studium Urbis, that is the University of Rome originating from the Schola Palatina, where the liberal arts and medicine were taught, can be dated 1303, but had even earlier origins.

Mario Petrocchi

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University of Bologna

L'Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna [5] (already Bologna University acronym: UniBo) is an Italian state university. Active since the 11th century, it is considered by many sources to be the oldest university in the world still in operation. [6] [7] [8] [9]

Although the first university statutes date back to 1317, the date of the first known edition of the statute of the University of Jurists, [10] as early as the 11th century the Studium, a thriving legal school. In 1888, a commission chaired by Giosuè Carducci [11] conventionally fixed the year of foundation at 1088, [12] accepting the hypotheses of some historians, the founder is considered Irnerio, presumably died after 1125. [13]


Index

From the twelfth century, universities spread throughout Europe and the major universities distinguished themselves for some particular discipline.

  • Salerno, with its ancient Medical school, Padua and Montpellier distinguished themselves for medicine
  • Bologna for the law
  • Paris and Oxford for theology and philosophy

Generally these universities were structured with a different internal articulation of the studies but each one usually housed some of these four faculties: faculty of the arts, medicine, law, theology. Only in Oxford were two faculties of law established: one for civil law and the other for canon law. The faculty of the arts provided basic teaching centered on the seven liberal arts with a greater interest in dialectics.

The climate that came to spread in these universities was completely different from that one breathed in the old bishop's schools. The teaching programs are freely conceived by the professors who, with the help of the students, also prepare textbooks designed for practical teaching.

The "scholastic method" of higher education is codified in these offices with which the student is initiated to follow a precise intellectual path through the lectio (reading), the quaestio (identification of problems), the disputatio (interpretative dispute) to arrive at the determinatio which represented the final synthesis.

In the climate of stimulating cultural commitment, classical culture was rediscovered and the works of Greek and Latin writers were read and commented on in universities. In the period from the end of the 12th century to the end of the 13th, the cultural movement of universities spread to a large part of Europe. In 1300 there were already at least 20 universities in Europe: ten in Italy (Bologna, Parma, Modena, Vicenza, Arezzo, Padua, Naples, Vercelli, Siena, the University of Salerno and the Studium of the Roman Curia), five in France (Paris, Montpellier, Toulouse, and Angers), two in England (Oxford and Cambridge), two in Spain (Salamanca and Valladolid) and the University of Lisbon in Portugal (which will later be transferred to Coimbra). [1] However, these were not equivalent institutions: until the end of the Middle Ages, even when the number of universities grew considerably, those that not only had a local function, but attracted teachers and students from other European countries were few if they can identify with some certainty seven: Bologna, Paris, Montpellier, Oxford, Padua, Salamanca and Cambridge. [2]

In the thirteenth century, however, the civil authorities, the sovereigns in France and England, the municipal magistrates in Italy, began to impose their control on the universities that had now become powerful corporations and despite the violent reaction of the university students, who also resorted to the weapon of the strike abandoning their offices, in the end they saw their autonomy stolen.

The papacy placed the universities under its own protection and jurisdiction by ensuring the juridical and economic privileges of the university students, but the great phase of discussion and intellectual confrontation was now over and the university intellectuality was increasingly directed towards ecclesiastical careers.

In one of his essays, the French medievalist Jacques Le Goff, one of the greatest historians of the twentieth century, says "the intellectuals of the West become, to a certain extent, but without any doubt, papal agents".

In the Byzantine Empire, the University of Constantinople, also called the University of Magnaura Palace Hall Studies, was recognized as a university in 848, although Western European states never recognized it as a university. Like most medieval universities, it had been an academic institution for many years before it was recognized as a university. The birth of the Constantinople school was under the reign of Theodosius II (408-450) on February 27, 426.


The official birth ofUniversity of Pisa It dates back to 3 September 1343 when Pope Clement VI, with the bull "In supremae dignitatis" issued in Villanova near Avignon, granted the Studio Pisano recognition as a General Office with the teachings of theology, canon and civil law, medicine "et qualibet alia licita facultate". In 1355 followed the diploma of recognition of the emperor Charles IV.

The first decades of the firm's life were certainly not easy also due to the serious economic difficulties, linked to the political and social events of the city, which passed under the Visconti in 1399 and conquered by the Republic of Florence in 1406. In 1449 the University even ended up for be closed. Between the end of the fifteenth century and throughout the following century, the University experienced alternating phases of crisis and expansion always connected to Tuscan political events.

It was Lorenzo de 'Medici who wanted the reconstitution of the Pisan Studio which reopened in 1473. In this period the University did not have an official seat and the lessons were held in the teachers' homes and in the churches, until, in the face of the constant increase of the students Lorenzo the Magnificent ordered the construction, in the Piazza del Grano, of an ad hoc building, the future Palazzo della Sapienza. But after the movement of the University to Florence in 1497 following the rebellion of Pisa against the Florentine city, the reopening of the University in Pisa took place only in 1543 thanks to Duke Cosimo I dei Medici. In this period, the institution of a Chair of the "Simple" (Botany) which was held by Luca Ghini, founder of the botanical garden. In 1589, for three years before moving to Padua, Galileo Galilei was a professor of Mathematics at the University after having been a student. his enrollment at the University of Pisa dates back to around 1580.

In the following centuries the University suffered the effects of the decline of the Medici Grand Duchy, and then recovered under the Lorraine dynasty, who completed the construction of the Specola, developed the Botanical Garden and the Museum of Natural Sciences and established new chairs, including Experimental Physics and Chemistry.

In the following years there were no substantial changes until the annexation of Tuscany to the Napoleonic Empire which led to the transformation of the Studio into an Imperial Academy, a branch of the University of Paris. Five Faculties (Theology, Law, Medicine, Science and Literature) were established and exams, degree theses and various academic qualifications were introduced. The Napoleonic legacy was not completely canceled by the Restoration of Ferdinand III, even if the ancient teaching colleges of Theology, Law and Medicine were returned. The work of Leopoldo II also referred to the Napoleonic model, who between 1824-1838 tried to strengthen the research laboratories and the improvement of researchers abroad. It was thanks to his subsidy that Ippolito Rosellini took part in the archaeological expeditions to Egypt with Champollion.

In 1839 Pisa hosted the first congress of Italian scientists attended by over 400 scholars in various disciplines and proposed to the national community as a place of great intellectual and political openness. Precisely in this period the University was at the center of a very important reform, commissioned by the new Provveditore Gaetano Giorgini, which led to six Faculties: Theology, Law, Humanities, Medicine, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. The approximately 600 enrolled students, of which about a hundred foreigners, could take advantage of an educational offer of about fifty courses divided into 9 degree or license courses. In addition, well-known teachers, including some political exiles, were called to teach new subjects. In particular, the new chair of Agriculture and Pastoralism was established, entrusted to Cosimo Ridolfi.

In these years the University was pervaded by liberal and patriotic ideals which found their maximum expression in the participation of a university battalion, made up of teachers and students, in the famous battle of Curtatone and Montanara in 1848.

With the advent of the Italian State, the law of 31 July 1862 recognized the University of Pisa as one of the six national primary universities, together with Turin, Pavia, Bologna, Naples and Palermo. In 1873 the Faculty of Theology was suppressed. Between the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century eminent teachers taught in Pisa including the jurists Francesco Carrara and Francesco Buonamici, the philologists Domenico Comparetti and Giovanni D'Ancona, the historians Pasquale Villari, Gioacchino Volpe and Luigi Russo, the philosopher Giovanni Gentile, the economist Giuseppe Toniolo, the mathematicians Ulisse Dini and Antonio Pacinotti.

In the post-unification period the University opened up to women and in 1891 Cornelia Fabri of Ravenna obtained her first degree, in Mathematics.

The University of Pisa was recognized as an Athenaeum of rank also by the Gentile reform in 1923. During the twentieth century the University continued to grow, and the faculties of Engineering and Pharmacy were established and after the Second World War the Faculties of Economics. and Commerce, Foreign Languages ​​and Literatures and Political Sciences. In 1969 the first degree course in computer science was born in Pisa and in 1983 the first doctoral course in computer science.

With the advent of law no. 168, university autonomy has been recognized (legislative, administrative, financial and didactic) and the University of Pisa has adopted its own Statute and Regulations.

Following the Gelmini Reform, the Pisan University is experiencing a period of profound change, starting with the adoption of the new Statute and the new structure that saw the birth of twenty new Departmental structures.


Research carried out by the Manibus Lab of the Department of Psychology of the University of Turin demonstrates for the first time that a few days of life for a newborn are enough to develop an efficient multisensory integration.

It was published in the prestigious international magazine Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the article entitled Spatial tuning of electrophysiological responses to multisensory stimuli reveals a primitive coding of the body boundaries in newborns".

The international study carried out by Manibus Lab of the Department of Psychology of the University of Turin and from University Neonatology of the City of Health and Science of Turin, in collaboration with the MySpace Lab of the Department of Clinical Neurosciences of the University of Lausanne and the Center for Neural Science of New York University, demonstrates that a few days of life for a newborn are enough to develop an efficient multisensory integration. In everyday life, being able to integrate sensory stimuli of different modalities into a coherent event is a fundamental skill, such as associating a voice with a familiar face or reconnecting the sound of the siren to the image of an oncoming ambulance.

For the first time, thanks to electroencephalography (a non-invasive neuroimaging technique) it was possible to measure the neural correlation of this phenomenon. With the aim of studying how the representation of the space surrounding the body develops, a multisensory paradigm was constructed consisting of auditory stimuli (single sounds) that could occur near or far from the body and tactile stimuli given on the back of the right hand. Each stimulus could be administered in isolation (eg, a single tactile stimulus) or associated with another (eg, an auditory stimulus given near the child's hand and a tactile stimulus administered simultaneously). It has been observed that infants are not only able to effectively associate a sound with a touch, but that the observed neural responses also make it possible to distinguish whether the sound is given near or far from the baby's body. This finding suggests that within hours of birth, newborns are capable of to identify their body as an entity separate from the external world and to possess a first form of coding of space.

This result is important because for the first time it clarifies that, unlike what happens for other mammals for which a slow development of multisensory integration is observed after birth, human infants are alreadyto able to associate a sound with a touch to a few hours of life ", he has declared Francesca Garbarini, Professor of Psychobiology and Coordinator of the Manibus Lab of the Psychology Department of the University of Turin. “This could be due to the long and rich gestation stage that it may already haveto prepared lemergence of this mechanism at birth. Furthermore, the observed neural responses show that the child is able to distinguish whether the sound is given near or far from his body. This aspect represents a fundamental prerequisite for developing defensive behaviors (learning to react to threats that occur close to my body) but also relational mechanisms (learning to interact with the objects around me and with the people who are close to me).

This discovery only reaffirms theimportance of interactions, the presence of a sensory environment rich in stimuli and social relationships in the first days of life: the brief moment in which this mechanism of multisensory integration develops ", he added Irene Ronga, Ricatrice of the Department of Psychology of the University of Turin and first author of the study. "The effect described in the work, if confirmed by future studies, mayto represent a possible biomarker of typical neurological development whose alterations could contribute to the early recognition of any developmental anomalies.


History

Starting from the seventeenth century, with the affirmation by the Academies of the "Volubili", the "Fantastici" and the "Invogliati" and, later, with the establishment of the Royal Customs Court and the Real Collegio, with the adjoining chairs of Law, Medicine and Agriculture, Foggia became one of the most active protagonists of the cultural life of the Italian south. During the nineteenth century a considerable scientific fervor was formed around the chairs that the University of Naples - at the time an almost monopolistic institution in the south in issuing the degree - had decentralized to Foggia in 1859.

Paradoxically, however, the condemnation of the closure of the newborn Foggia university dates back to 1859 since the Casati Law, promulgated on November 13 in the Kingdom of Sardinia and extended to all of Italy, provided for a strongly centralized structure of the entire education system and the consequent closure of many decentralized chairs or chairs connected to the clergy.

Failed in 1894 the project of the Minister of Education Guido Baccelli, who had opened the doors to the establishment of a university in Puglia, in 1918 Benedetto Biagi managed to organize a series of cultural activities in Foggia that would lead to the Popular University. Due to the war events, the project did not find immediate realization and it had to wait until 1919 for the birth of the Popular University of Foggia which remained confined, however, to the precious task of disseminating knowledge.

It was only in the 1960s that the institution of the University in Foggia began to become a reality starting with the Economic Plan of Puglia for the five-year period 1966-1970. Even before the Resolution of 23 July 1974, with which the Council of the Puglia Region formalized the request of the university in Foggia, the Provincial and Municipal Councils approved the statute of the University Consortium which, in the intentions of the Order of Doctors, should have followed the birth of a branch of the Faculty of Medicine in Foggia.

With the call for a general mobilization, in 1977 the Association of Industrialists of Capitanata invited the Region and the Ministry to take all the initiatives within their competence to favor the birth of the Foggia university. The answers were not long in coming: the D.P.R. 382/80, first of all, announced the two-year plan for the establishment of new universities and Law 590/82, envisaged in the university development plan "a better territorial articulation [...] in the Piedmont, Campania, Emilia Romagna and Puglia Regions": The University of Foggia seemed to be done.

The early end of the legislature prevented the achievement of the objectives of law 590/82, even if, in the meantime, a new push to the birth of the University of Foggia came, in 1984, from the updating of the statute of the Consortium for the University of Foggia. , in order to favor the establishment of the third Apulian university center.

In 1986 a secretarial desk was opened and in 1988 the students from Foggia enrolled in the Faculty of Economics and Commerce of the University of Bari were able to attend the first seminar lesson "at home". In May 1989 the decree was published with which the Presidency of the Council of Ministers authorized the creation of the Foggia branch offices of the Bari Faculties of Agriculture, Economics and Commerce and Law.

On 15 November 1990 the first lecture was held at the University of Foggia and on 12 January 1991 the inauguration of the academic year of the University of Bari took place in the decentralized seat of Foggia, with the intervention of the then Minister for University, Antonio Ruberti.

The Degree Course in Medicine and Surgery was inaugurated in the 1993/94 academic year and, on October 15, 1994, with an honorary degree in Economics and Commerce to Antonio Fazio, Governor of the Bank of Italy, the graduation season began in the Foggia headquarters.

This leads to the completion of the birth of the University of Foggia: following the Law 662/96, the University of Bari was included in the list of so-called overcrowded mega-universities and, therefore, to be subjected to the procedures of "decongestion ". Antonio Muscio, who would later become the first Rector in the history of the Daunio University, was delegated to the decongestion process for the Foggia site.


University - Their birth

09 MAR - Newborns and already able to identify their body as an entity separate from the outside world: newborns a few hours after birth demonstrate a first form of space coding.

A fundamental prerequisite for developing defensive behaviors, such as learning to react to threats that occur close to my body, but also relational mechanisms, such as learning to interact with close objects and people.

This is demonstrated for the first time by a research carried out by Manibus Lab of the Department of Psychology of the University of Turin and from University neonatology of the Sant'Anna hospital of the City of Health, in collaboration with the MySpace Lab of the Department of Clinical Neurosciences of the University of Lausanne and the Center for Neural Science of New York University.

The study entitled "Spatial tuning of electrophysiological responses to multisensory stimuli reveals a primitive coding of the body boundaries in newborns " and published, on March 8, on Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrates that a few days of life for a newborn are enough to develop an efficient multisensory integration. In everyday life, being able to integrate sensory stimuli of different modalities into a coherent event is a fundamental skill, such as associating a voice with a familiar face or reconnecting the sound of the siren to the image of an oncoming ambulance.

For the first time, thanks to electroencephalography (a non-invasive neuroimaging technique) it was possible to measure the neural correlation of this phenomenon. With the aim of studying how the representation of the space surrounding the body develops, a multisensory paradigm was constructed consisting of auditory stimuli (single sounds) that could occur near or far from the body and tactile stimuli given on the back of the right hand. Each stimulus could be administered in isolation (eg, a single tactile stimulus) or associated with another (eg, an auditory stimulus given near the child's hand and a tactile stimulus administered simultaneously). It has been observed that infants are not only able to effectively associate a sound with a touch, but that the observed neural responses also make it possible to distinguish whether the sound is given near or far from the baby's body. This result suggests that a few hours after birth, newborns are able to identify their body as an entity separate from the outside world and to possess a first form of space coding.

"This result is important because for the first time it clarifies that, unlike what happens for other mammals for which a slow development of multisensory integration is observed after birth, human infants are already able to associate a sound with a touch. a few hours old - he declared Francesca Garbarini, Professor of Psychobiology and Coordinator of the Manibus Lab of the Psychology Department of the University of Turin - this could be due to the long and rich gestation phase that may have already prepared the emergence of this mechanism at birth. Furthermore, the observed neural responses show that the child is able to distinguish whether the sound is given near or far from his body. This aspect represents a fundamental prerequisite for developing defensive behaviors (learning to react to threats that occur close to my body), but also relational mechanisms (learning to interact with the objects around me and with the people who are close to me) ".

"This discovery only reaffirms the importance of interactions, the presence of a sensory environment rich in stimuli and social relationships in the first days of life: the brief moment in which this multisensory integration mechanism develops", he added Irene Ronga, Co-writer of the Department of Psychology of the University of Turin and first author of the study: "The effect described in the work, if confirmed by future studies, could represent a possible biomarker of typical neurological development whose alterations could contribute to the early recognition of any anomalies development ".

"It was thought in the past that the brain activity of newborns was subcortical, based on reflex phenomena - he explains Enrico Bertino, Direttore della Neonatologia universitaria della Città della Salute di Torino, che insieme alla dottoressa Cristina Perathoner ha curato la parte clinica della studio – lo studio ha confermato come i neonati abbiano, fin dalle prime ore di vita, straordinarie capacità nel riconoscere gli stimoli provenienti dall’esterno, che oggi sappiamo possono plasmare lo sviluppo cerebrale già in queste fasi molto precoci della vita e, chissà, forse anche nel periodo fetale. Aiutare in modo favorevole la plasticità cerebrale, massima al momento della nascita, è il prerequisito per un favorevole sviluppo evolutivo e la costruzione di una futura capacità di relazione sociale. Particolare attenzione quindi, anche nell’era Covid, va posta nel salvaguardare la vicinanza e le favorevoli relazioni precoci madre/neonato/famiglia in questo periodo estremamente critico”.


A poche ore dalla nascita i neonati riconoscono il loro corpo come un'entità separata dal mondo esterno - Una ricerca realizzata dal Manibus Lab del Dipartimento di Psicologia di UniTo pubblicata sulla prestigiosa rivista internazionale Pnas

Una ricerca realizzata dal Manibus Lab del Dipartimento di Psicologia dell’Università di Torino e dalla Neonatologia Universitaria della Città della Salute e della Scienza, in collaborazione con il MySpace Lab del Department of Clinical Neurosciences dell’Università di Losanna e il Center for Neural Science della New York University, dimostra per la prima volta come i neonati siano in grado di associare stimoli sensoriali di modalità differenti e di distinguere se la sorgente di questi stimoli è vicina o lontana dal loro corpo, dimostrando così di possedere una prima forma di codifica dello spazio.

L’ 8 marzo è stato pubblicato, sulla prestigiosa rivista internazionale Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), l’articolo intitolato "Spatial tuning of electrophysiological responses to multisensory stimuli reveals a primitive coding of the body boundaries in newborns".

Lo studio internazionale realizzato dal Manibus Lab del Dipartimento di Psicologia dell’Università di Torino e dalla Neonatologia Universitaria della Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, in collaborazione con il MySpace Lab del Department of Clinical Neurosciences dell’Università di Losanna e il Center for Neural Science della New York University, dimostra che pochi giorni di vita per un neonato sono sufficienti per sviluppare una integrazione multisensoriale efficiente. Nella vita di tutti giorni essere in grado di integrare stimoli sensoriali di modalità differenti in un evento coerente è un'abilità fondamentale, come ad esempio associare una voce a un viso noto o ricollegare il suono della sirena all'immagine di una ambulanza in arrivo.

Per la prima volta, grazie all'elettroencefalografia (una tecnica di neuroimmagine non invasiva) è stato possibile misurare il correlato neurale di questo fenomeno. Con lo scopo di studiare come si sviluppa la rappresentazione dello spazio che circonda il corpo, è stato costruito un paradigma multisensoriale composto da stimoli uditivi (singoli suoni) che potevano occorrere vicino o lontano dal corpo e da stimoli tattili dati sul dorso della mano destra. Ciascuno stimolo poteva essere somministrato in isolamento (ad es. un singolo stimolo tattile) o associato ad un altro (ad es. uno stimolo uditivo dato vicino alla mano del bimbo e uno stimolo tattile somministrati simultaneamente). È stato osservato che i neonati non solo sono in grado di associare un suono a un tocco in maniera efficace, ma che le risposte neurali osservate permettono anche di distinguere se il suono viene dato vicino o lontano dal corpo del bimbo. Questo risultato suggerisce che a poche ore dalla nascita i neonati siano in grado di identificare il loro corpo come un'entità separata dal mondo esterno e di possedere una prima forma di codifica dello spazio.

“Questo risultato è importante perché per la prima volta chiarisce che, a differenza di quanto accade per altri mammiferi per cui si osserva un lento sviluppo dell’integrazione multisensoriale dopo la nascita, i neonati umani sono già in grado di associare un suono a un tocco a poche ore di vita, ha dichiarato Francesca Garbarini, Professoressa di Psicobiologia e Coordinatrice del Manibus Lab del Dipartimento di Psicologia dell'Università di Torino. Questo potrebbe essere dovuto alla lunga e ricca fase di gestazione che potrebbe aver già preparato l’emergere di questo meccanismo alla nascita. Inoltre, le risposte neurali osservate mostrano che il bambino è in grado di distinguere se il suono viene dato vicino o lontano dal suo corpo. Questo aspetto rappresenta un prerequisito fondamentale per sviluppare i comportamenti difensivi (imparare a reagire a minacce che avvengono vicine al mio corpo) ma anche meccanismi relazionali (imparare a interagire con gli oggetti intorno a me e con le persone che mi sono vicine).

“Questa scoperta non fa che riaffermare l’importanza delle interazioni, della presenza di un ambiente sensoriale ricco di stimoli e delle relazioni sociali nei primi giorni di vita: il breve momento in cui questo meccanismo di integrazione multisensoriale si sviluppa”, ha aggiunto Irene Ronga, Ricatrice del Dipartimento di Psicologia dell'Università di Torino e primo autore dello studio. L’effetto descritto nel lavoro, se confermato da studi futuri, potrà rappresentare un possibile biomarker di sviluppo neurologico tipico le cui alterazioni potrebbero contribuire al riconoscimento precoce di eventuali anomalie dello sviluppo.


Video: Fetal circulation right before birth. Circulatory system physiology. NCLEX-RN. Khan Academy


Comments:

  1. Carlaisa

    an Interesting variant

  2. Tojakinos

    To say the least.

  3. Zulkilar

    Probably inspired by standard thinking? Keep it simple))

  4. Lambrecht

    a very good question

  5. Hariman

    Congratulations, what words do you need ... another idea

  6. Nagor

    Your thought is very good



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